We all think that the way we see is normal, that we share it with other human beings. At least that is what happens in color perception, something that explains why color blindness goes unnoticed for a long time in some people. Here we are going to show the different types of this visual disability that exist and, in addition, we will see why it occurs.
Why does color blindness happen?
Color blindness is neither more nor less an alteration of the photoreceptors, cells found in the retina. Especially those responsible for responding to certain wave variations, which are what, determine the color of the objects we see.
It can be produced, in most cases, by genetic causes. However, Parkinson’s disease, cataracts or the reaction to some drugs can develop this problem in eyes that were previously healthy.
Types of color blindness
Let’s go with what is the most interesting part of this article. Next, we leave you with a list in which you will see the types of color blindness that are currently recognized:
- Achromatic Daltonism: This is one of the rarest types of colorblind contacts that exist. Statistically, only 1 in 100,000 people who develop the disease will have this variety. Achromatic color blindness is one in which the individual sees in black and white without distinguishing any color, something that is due to neurological or physiological problems in the same eye.
- Monochromatic color blindness: in this type, of the three cones that exist in the retina, only one of them is sensitive, therefore, those who suffer from it will see in different intensities but the same color and do not distinguish any other.
- Dichromatic Daltonism: this dysfunction is completely hereditary and is one of the most moderate cases of the disease. This case can occur in three different ways. They are the following:
- Tritanopia: in this case, the individual has a deficiency of one of the types of cones, specifically the so-called L cones, responsible for capturing long wavelengths. Therefore, these patients confuse red and green.
- Deuteranopia: in deuteranopia, the deficiency is of the cells called M cones, which collect the information of the average wavelengths. In this case, there is also the confusion between red and green.
- Tritanopia: Finally, tritanopia is the least frequent. In this case, the S cones, those that receive information from short wavelengths, are the ones that are altered. Those individuals with this condition will have difficulty distinguishing between blue and yellow.
In addition to the types we have seen before, there is one more: anomalous dichromatic color blindness. In this case, the colors can be seen, but the receptors in the eyes are altered and, therefore, patients suffering from abnormal dichromatic color blindness will confuse one another.
In short, color blindness has many variants. Some may be more limiting than others, although the truth is that with good learning after diagnosis, patients can carry out their daily lives properly without limitations.