to generate maximum force that improves performance . Athletes can develop strength either by increasing the muscle mass they will use during exercise while keeping the rate of acceleration stable and keeping muscle mass constant (throwing and jumping). In the first case it is about increasing strength, while in the second it develops power.
The fourth group includes all team sports and individual sports
in which there is opposition to an opponent (boxing, wrestling, judo, fencing). The skills required are excellent functioning of the sensory organs and the ability to perceive an action quickly under constantly changing competition conditions. Decisions made in complex game situations depend on the athlete’s ability to perceive external stimuli. The speed and accuracy of interpretation can prevent opponents from successfully performing any tactical maneuvers or achieving success for their team.
The fifth group of sports incorporates activities such as horse riding,
sailing, motor sports and water skiing. This group is poorly researched, although some skills are useful in daily life. In some 해외축구 중계사이트 (sailing, motorcycling, etc.), the quality of the material influences the results of the competition; however, athletes must also hone material handling skills. Developing those complex skills requires hours of training. The processing of the information received by the central nervous system (CNS) from the proprioceptors must be extremely fast, because the athletes will have to make quick decisions during the competition. To be successful, it is also important to have a good physical preparation with a specific development of strength adapted to the requirements of the sport.
Aside from strength and reaction time,
Balance and endurance are also key physical abilities that the athlete will need when playing any of these sports.
Although the activities of the sixth group of the sports classification (shooting, archery, chess) are recognized as sports, they are not really physical exercises because the motor component is low. However, as Gamesman and Smirnov (1970) have suggested, these sports reflect the main trend in modern training, according to which the CNS increases its relevance as the leader of the activity.
Although the participants in these sports
do not involve great physical effort, chess players and fencers participate in well-planned physical exercises. Both sports require excellent endurance that allows participants to maintain concentration, patience, and psychological self-control during a long competition. Upper body strength will make it possible for the shooter to hold the gun firmly without drifting off target.
Finally, combined sports incorporate many elements (eg decathlon) or different sports like the modern pentathlon (equestrian, shooting, fencing, swimming and cross country). The heptathlon, triathlon, and biathlon are also in this group. The psychological and physiological interpretations must be made according to the specific aspects of each event that make up the combined sport, because most include activities from several sports and from different intensity zones. The variety of tests and sports that determine the type of training to be carried out is complex, and gives rise to complete athletes.
The classification of sports proposed by Ganders’
Man and Smirnov (1970) is schematic. However, it is beneficial for the coach to have a good understanding of the characteristics of all sports activities, because a sport included in one group may have some specific features of another group. Understanding the traits and characteristics of a sport can improve the coach’s effort and make it easier for the training program to be more varied and achieve more effective results.